Europass, EHEA, ЕCТS, Tuning

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The main purpose of the Bologna process is to create the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).

Creating the EHEA presupposes:

  • - Introduction of a three-cyclesystem of higher vocational education (learning cycles);
  • - Introduction of the Higher Education Diploma Supplement, similar to the European Diploma Supplement;
  • - Development of academic mobility of students and teachers;
  • - Introduction of the strategy of internationalization of higher education through the implementation of vocational education programs offered in different languages;
  • - Improving students services during their adaptation to a different institution;
  • - Specialization of international university services with account of the Bologna Declaration;
  • - Conducting marketing researches in the field of higher education.

In addition, the creation of the European Higher Education Area includes:

  • - organization of the education market;
  • - recognition of qualifications of graduates;
  • - comparability of requirements of the European system of quality assurance of educational institutions, as well as educational programs of universities;
  • - development of internal university education quality control systems;
  • - involvement of students and employers in external evaluation of universities.

The creation of the EHEA also means that each of the three learning cycles has the function of preparing students for the labour market.

The following are key concepts of the Bologna process, which characterize the global phenomena and events that are understandable and considered effective by the European Union countries, but still not fully apprehended, correctly implemented and welcomed in the Ukrainian educational system.

However, the content of the concepts described in this section of the site does not give an absolutely deep interpretation. Those interested in more detailed or exhaustive explanation of these and other definitions of the Bologna process can obtain information on the sites of the National Bologna Centre of Ukraine and the Centre of International Education of the All-Ukrainian Academic Union.


 «Europass» is a harmonized system of the job and training place searching service functioning in European countries (electronic version of this service:, as well as the unified form of documents accompanying this process. «Europass» is established and functions in accordance with the decision of the Council of Europe 2241/2004/EC. The use of the «Europass» tools at the international level provides transparency and uniformity in all that relates to diplomas and certificates, and skills and qualifications obtained in other countries become understood for the employer in any European country. «Europass» consists of five documents: a detailed CV (Curriculum Vitae); «the Language Passport», reflecting the level of the applicant's knowledge of foreign languages; «the Europass Diploma Supplement» (which indicates and describes the obtained education); «the Europass Mobility» (which systematically indicates an international work and training experience);«the Europass Certificate Supplement» (record of a vocation and professional competence).

As explained by Carlo Scatoli, Head of the Qualifications Sector, Directorate General for Education and Culture of the European Commission, as far as Ukraine is not a member of the EU and EEA, and therefore not a full participant of the «Europass» program, it is the DS that is a key international instrument providing mobility of Ukrainian citizens, academic and professional recognition of their education.

However, the European Commission would eagerly accept any documental tools that are considered, effective, uniformly implemented and executed in a form understandable for Europe, facilitating the recognition of foreign educational qualifications in the European Union, providing the mobility of such qualifications holders, their academic and professional recognition.

European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS)

ECTS is a credit system of higher education, which is used in the European Higher Education Area, including all countries of the Bologna process. ECTS is one of the keystones of the Bologna process. Most countries of the Bologna Process have acknowledged the use of ECTS in their systems of higher education.

One of the objectives of the Bologna process is to create a system of credits as an appropriate means to facilitate the widest possible mobility of students. ECTS also facilitates the realization of other objectives of the Bologna process:

  • - ECTS credits are a key element of the Bologna framework of qualifications that is compatible with the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning (EQF). In accordance with the Bologna framework of qualifications, the first and second cycles have their own ranges of credit. Accordingly, the ECTS credits are used to define a national framework of qualifications in higher education, which may contain a more detailed national distribution of credit.
  • - ECTS helps higher education institutions to achieve the quality goal. In some countries ECTS is mandatory for the accreditation of programs or higher education qualifications.
  • - ECTS is increasingly used by educational institutions in other parts of the world, and thus plays a role in growing the global dimension of the Bologna process.

ECTS - is focused on learning, it is the system of accumulation and transfer of credits, which is based on the transparency of learning outcomes and learning process. Its goal is to promote the planning, delivery, evaluation, recognition and validation of qualifications and training modules, as well as facilitating mobility of students. ECTS is widely used in formal higher education and can be used for other activities in lifelong learning.

Implementing ECTS in the University system is the only possible basis and necessary tool for implementation in educational practice pan-European Diploma Supplement - Diploma Supplement. According to the unified European approach to the implementation of DS, all the information in it is displayed through the prism of ECTS tools, which is why the European system of accumulation and transfer of credits are often referred to as "ECTS-DS".


The project TUNING intends to "tune" educational structures in Europe, initiating the discussion, which aims - to identify and exchange information and improve European cooperation in the area of improving quality, efficiency and transparency.

The TUNING project does not mean the development of unified, prescriptive or definitive European curricula. It doesn’t aim at developing a strict list of subject specifications, limiting or otherwise defining the content of education and / or putting an end to the of European higher education variety.

It doesn’t intend to restrict the independence of academics and subject specialists, or undermine local and national academic authority.

In preparing the project the following main goals and objectives were identified:

- Provide a strong convergence of higher education in five, later seven (with the subsequent quantitative development), main subject areas (business, chemistry, education science, geology, history, mathematics and physics) by defining commonly accepted professional results and learning outcomes.

- Developing professional profiles and desired learning outcomes and competences in terms of universal jurisdiction and related to the subject of competencies, including skills, knowledge and content, for the seven domains.

- Promoting transparency in educational structures and further innovation by sharing experiences and identifying best practices.

- Creating a European network that can provide examples of "best practices" by encouraging innovation and quality in the analysis and exchange of information, including those for other disciplines.

- Ensuring the collection and exchange of information on curriculum development in selected areas. Developing a rough structure of the curriculum, expressed in terms of "referent points" for each area, which should facilitate the recognition and European integration of diplomas.

- Establishing links between the network of universities - the project participants and other competent organizations to ensure convergence in selected subject areas.

- Developing a methodology for the analysis of common elements and areas of different specifics and diversity, and finding ways to customize them.

- Paying attention to other subject areas where similar processes could be implemented by a joint effort.

  - Acting together with all stakeholders involved in setting up the educational structures, in particular - with the Bologna Follow-up Group, the Ministries of Education, Rectors' Conference (including the EUA), other associations (e.g., EURASHE), organizations for quality assurance and accreditation bodies, as well as with universities. One of the key objectives of the TUNING project is to contribute to the development of easily readable and comparable educational qualifications.